- Great Lakes Maritime History Project: Wisconsin Maritime History Website [Web Page]. Available at: http:digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/WI.GreatLakes. Notes: This well-designed Internet website focuses on all aspects of the maritime history of the Great Lakes with emphasis on that of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, and the many smaller lakes in Wisconsin, in addition to the network of rivers throughout Wisconsin, and especially the Mississippi River on Wisconsin’s western border. The primary arrangement of this visual archive is into eight broad categories: Barges; Cargo Ships; Lake Steamers; Lighthouses; Passenger Ships; River Steamers; Schooners; and, Shipwrecks. All of the approximately 1,800 images currently in the website can be searched by any keyword or combination of keywords appearing in the descriptive record accompanying each image, including names of vessels or company (e.g., S.S. Lakeland, Superior Shipbuilding Company), topical element (e.g., crew, ice), geographic place names (e.g., Duluth-Superior Harbor), etc. Any kind of image or item related to maritime history may be found here–photographs, postcards, tickets, blueprints, shipping forms, underwater video, etc.
This collaborative project contains visual images selected from several significant maritime history collections located in Wisconsin, including those held at the following institutions: the State Historical Society of Wisconsin; the Special Collections Department of the Murphy Library at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse; the Jim Dan Hill Library at the University of Wisconsin-Superior; the Milwaukee Public Library; the Wisconsin Marine Historical Society; and, the Door County Maritime Historical Society. Contact information is provided for each of the contributing collections–in case one doesn’t find what is wanted among the images available through the website, be sure to ask the participating libraries to consult their substantial ship files consisting of many thousands more of images.
Update (December 2006): This website has now become part of The State of Wisconsin Collection at http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/WI/.
- “A Job Well Done …”: Sturgeon Bay in World War II, As Told by the Workers Themselves . Sturgeon Bay, Wis.: Door County Maritime Museum, [in partnership with The History Company]; 2000. 1 VHS videocassette (15:00 min.)(THC [i.e., The History Company] ; 1). Notes: Prepared to accompany an exhibit at the Door County Maritime Museum (located in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin), this fifteen-minute video tells the story of the four shipyards in Sturgeon Bay which altogether produced two hundred fifty-eight new ships for the World War II effort, including cargo ships, supply ships, and war ships.In less than five years, the total employment at these four Sturgeon Bay shipyards grew from less than a handful to over 7,000 workers (including many women welders), transforming the small town of Sturgeon Bay into a boom town. Two government housing projects provided living quarters for six hundred families and five hundred individual workers, as well as a city bus service was set up to shuttle employees between work and home.All the ships from the Sturgeon Bay yards were built to fit through the locks of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Mississippi River. Peterson Boatworks produced thirty-seven motor launches, aircraft rescue vessels and one-hundred-ten-foot-long submarine chasers. Sturgeon Bay Boatworks (now known as the Palmer Johnson company) produced forty-three freight and aircraft rescue boats for the U.S. Army. Sturgeon Bay Shipbuilding & Drydocks produced eighty-five tugs, tenders, and cargo, supply and retrieving vessels. L.D. Smith Shipbuilding produced ninety-three frigates, net tenders, tankers, cargo vessels, and gun boats, including thirty-eight submarine chasers one-hundred-seventy-three-feet-long (known as “PC’s”).
To purchase a copy of this video, contact the Door County Maritime Museum in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, either by telephone at 920/743-2766 or through their website at http://dcmm.org.
CREDITS: Producer, Molly Hauser Natwick. Writer & Director, Patrick Gary. Executive producers: Jon Gast, Christine Randall, June Larson. Videography: James Parish, Patrick Gary, Gary Edelburg. Production: Shawn Erickson, Carl Romey. Historical footage: Mike Kelsey, John Thenell, Robert Wolter. Still photography: The W.C. Schroeder Collection, The Door County Martitime Museum. Background information: Jacinda Duffin, Laurie Flanigan, Cleida Galligan, Arnold Geitner, Mike Kelsey, Henry King, George Oram, Gerhard C.F. Miller, Eunice Schlintz, Frank Schneider, Arnold Schwartz, Violet Vieau. Very special thanks to John Enigl, Jim Evans, Betty Krueger, Dorothy Mosgaller, Betty Peterson, Bob Solomon, Don Townsend, Gordon Weber. Editor, Patrick Gary. Editing facilities: Big Creek Productions, a company of Fox Road Communications.
- Addison, Douglass D. Sr. Great Northern Railway Ore Docks of Lake Superior Photo Archive. Hudson, Wis.: Iconografix; 2002. 126 p. Notes: Using primarily photographs and engineering drawings, this book documents the operation of the world’s largest iron ore docks, which are located in Superior, Wisconsin. Over time the Great Northern Railway Company, headquartered in St. Paul, Minnesota, built altogether four docks in the Superior harbor for the transfer first of iron ore (up through 1969) and later of taconite (beginning in 1969) from railroad cars to ocean-going ships. Ore Dock One was built in 1892 of timber, Ore Dock Two in 1899-1900 of timber, Ore Dock Three in 1902-1903 of timber, and, Ore Dock Four in 1911 of concrete and steel; the improvements made over the years to all four docks are carefully detailed. The Superior ore docks were featured in the April 1925 issue of the Great Northern Semaphore and that article is reprinted here in its entirety as the “Introduction” to this book (p. 6-10).
A nearby, related attraction in Superior is the S.S. Meteor Maritime Museum, which preserves the last surviving example of the cigar-shaped “whaleback” ore boats built in the 1890s, one of the early style of ships to use Superior’s iron ore docks. The S.S. Meteor was built in the Superior harbor and since 1972 has been permanently berthed there, with guided tours being offered by the museum from Memorial Day to Labor Day. On the tours one gets to see the operational sections of the ship (the pilot house, captain’s and crew’s quarters, galley, and engine room), in addition to thousands of Great Lakes shipping artifacts on display in the hold of the ship, as well as a history of ship building in the area; for information about the museum, see their web site, available at www.visitsuperior.com/ssmeteor/index.html.
- Barnett, Le Roy. Shipping Literature of the Great Lakes: A Catalog of Company Publications, 1852-1990.
East Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press; 1992. 165 p. Notes: As the printed items from a shipping firm will be scattered in libraries and archives located around the country, this is an extremely useful union list identifying 3,042 “publications issued by 230 different shipping firms that operated on the Great Lakes” (p. 5) and which constitute about eighty percent of all the “substantive printed items that were ever issued by shipping companies operating on the Great Lakes” (p. ix) and in which of 160 public repositories a copy will be found. Paper items with little informational value or minor promotional items produced by the shipping firms were excluded.
Wisconsin ports located on Lake Superior are Superior, Bayfield, and Ashland. Wisconsin ports located on Lake Michigan are Green Bay, Gills Rock, Sturgeon Bay, Kewaunee, Manitowoc, and Milwaukee.
The entries are arranged by the name of each shipping firm and each printed item is fully described and the repository where the item can be found is given. Each entry also includes the name of the headquarters of the shipping firm.
Although an index to personal names, corporate names and geographic names is provided, some care should be taken in its use because there are a number of shipping firms with Wisconsin connections which cannot be located through the index under the name of the city in which they are headquartered and must be found by looking up their entry in the body of the bibliography–these include: Atwood, David (Madison, WI); Bayprint (Sturgeon Bay, WI); Chicago Roosevelt Steamship Company (Detroit, MI); Grand Trunk Milwaukee Car Ferry Company (Detroit, MI); Green Bay Transportation Company (Green Bay, WI); Hart Transportation Company (Sturgeon Bay, WI); Jermain & Brightman (Milwaukee, WI); Johnson Litho (Eau Claire, WI); Lake Michigan Transit Company (Milwaukee, WI); Michigan-Wisconsin Transportation Company (Ludington, MI); Peninsula & Northern Navigation Company (Milwaukee, WI); Quigley Printing (Green Bay, WI); Voight’s Marine Service, Limited (Ellison Bay, WI); Wisconsin & Michigan Steamship Company (Milwaukee, WI).
- Cady, Samuel H. Howard. Free America!: A Plain Statement of How the Federated Shop Craftsmen Conducted Their Strike on the Chicago and North Western Railway in Wisconsin in 1922 . [Wisconsin?]: [The Railway?]; [1922?]. 60 p. ??? Notes: OCLC #17634489; copy available in the library of the Wisconsin Historical Society (see in the Pamphlet Collection 56-2905).
- Cary, John W. The Organization and History of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. [Milwaukee, Wis.: Press of Cramer, Aikens, & Cramer; 1892?]. 392 p.—. The Organization and History of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company. New York:Arno Press; 1981. 392 p. Notes: “Reprint of the 1893 ed. printed by Cramer, Aikens & Cramer, Chicago”–OCLC #6734963. Reprints of this edition continue to be available through the Ayer Company, Merrimack Book Service, in Salem, N.H.; see Books in Print for current ordering information.
- Christianson, Carl Raymond. Ship Building and Boat Building in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin: From the Beginning to 1985. [Sturgeon Bay, Wis.?]: C.R. Christianson; 1989. 142 p. Notes: Ship and boat building activities in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, can be dated back to within a year or two after the first European settlement there in 1835. Through the years since then, several local companies have carried on the tradition and produced quite a variety of ships and boats in Sturgeon Bay and the author, founder of the Door County Marine Museum, provides the history for several, including: Joseph Harris Boat Works; Sturgeon Bay Boat Manufacturing (later, Sturgeon Bay Boatworks); Palmer Johnson Boats (later, Palmer Johnson, Inc.); Peterson Boatworks (later, Peterson Builders, Inc.); Leathem D. Smith Towing and Wrecking (later, Leathem Smith Coal and Dock, and later, Leathem D. Smith Shipbuilding Corp.); Sturgeon Bay Shipbuilding and Drydock; Christy Corp. The Manitowoc Corp. purchased Sturgeon Bay Shipbuilding and Drydock in 1967 and the Christy Corp. in 1969 and then formed today’s Bay Shipbuilding Corp., a subsidiary of the Manitowoc Corp.
- Commons, John R. “The La Follette Railroad Law in Wisconsin”. American Monthly Review of Reviews: An International Magazine. 1905(July-December); 32(1):76-79. Notes: This article describes the railroad law, enacted by the 1905 Wisconsin legislature and signed by Governor Robert M. La Follette, which created a Wisconsin state railroad commission composed of three appointed commissioners with authority to review the charges and services of any type of railroad operating in Wisconsin and with legal mechanisms available to the new commission for enforcing its rulings. Dissatisfaction with the operation of railroads in Wisconsin had been widespread enough to have become an issue in the 1904 Wisconsin governor’s race. Commons, the influential University of Wisconsin professor, sketches the political manuvers of the reformers versus the railroads in crafting the new legislation and takes careful note of the similarities and differences between the new Wisconsin railroad commission and comparable commissions in several other states. This item is included by James O. Morris in his Bibliography of Industrial Relations in the Railroad Industry (Ithaca, N.Y.: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, 1975), p. 76.
- Condon, Gregg; Felten, Robert, and and Nickoll, James. The Dinky: C&NW Narrow Gauge in Wisconsin.
- Altoona, Wis.: Marsh Lake Productions; 1993. 80 p. Notes: An over-all history of the local railway service which operated from 1878 to 1926 in the Green River Valley in southwestern Wisconsin between the towns of Fennimore, Wisconsin and Woodman, Wisconsin. It was a narrow gauge train, which meant that the rails on which the trains ran were not set as far apart as that on which standard gauge trains ran, requiring the transfer of passengers and freight where the narrow gauge rails connected with the standard gauge line to the east which ran into Madison, Wisconsin.
- Dahlinger, Fred Jr. Trains of the Circus, 1872-1956. Hudson, Wis.: Iconografix; 2000. 126 p.
Notes: Published in conjunction with the Circus World Museum (located in Baraboo, Wisconsin), this volume consists primarily of photographs showing how trains were used by circuses as they moved from place to place throughout the United States for their short engagements. Included photographs show both the railroad cars specifically designed to meet the requirements of transporting the specialized circus equipment and livestock, as well as the techniques developed to efficiently load and unload a circus; many of the examples provided were drawn from the files of the Ringling Brothers’ circus, which had begun in Baraboo and which remained headquartered there for many years.
- Derleth, August. The Milwaukee Road: Its First Hundred Years. New York: Creative Age Press; 1948.
(The Railroads of America; 3). Notes: The well-known Wisconsin author, August Derleth, captures here in a fine narrative history the first one hundred years of the railroad known as the “Milwaukee Road” from its beginnings in 1851 with just twenty miles of track between Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Waukesha, Wisconsin to 1948 and its over ten-thousand miles of track across Wisconsin, the Michigan Peninsula, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Montana, Idaho, and the state of Washington. In a lengthy appendix (p. 265-287), Derleth also provides a complete corporate history of the railroad arranged by state and detailing each acquisition, merger, consolidation and sale which went into the making of the Milwaukee Road; a second appendix chronologically arranged shows the termini of each section of track acquired for the Milwaukee Road and gives a numerical key to identify the corresponding corporate transaction within the full corporate history found in the first appendix.
- Doro, Sue. Blue Collar Goodbyes. 1st ed. Watsonville, Calif.: Papier-Mache Press; 1992. 73 p.
Notes: Poems, photographs and essays about the thirteen years the author spent in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as the only woman machinist with the Milwaukee Road Railway and at the Allis-Chalmers tractor plant at a time of increased plant closings and cutbacks. In 1993 the Wisconsin Library Association selected this book as one of the ten books of “Outstanding Achievement” by Wisconsin authors for the year.
Reviewed: Allen, Hayward (reviewer). “Badger Books: Writers Link Past to Present.” Wisconsin State Journal, Sunday, November 22, 1992, p. 3F. Reviewed: Monaghan, Pat (reviewer). Booklist p. 710 December 15, 1992. Reviewed: Ratner, Rochelle (reviewer). Library Journal p. 81 March 1, 1993.
Another edition: Doro, Sue. Blue Collar Goodbyes. Huron, O.: Bottom Dog Press, 2000. 85 p. (Working Lives Series) ISBN: 0-933087-66-7.
- —. Heart, Home & Hard Hats: The Non-Traditional Work and Words of a Woman Machinist and Mother .
Minneapolis, Minn.: Midwest Villages & Voices; 1986. 85 p. Notes: This second collection of poems by Sue Doro includes a glowing preface written by Meridel Le Sueur, a member of the group Midwest Villages & Voices which published this volume. Many of these poems touch on aspects of Doro’s non-traditional work as a woman machinist and on the people in her life, both at work and at home.
- —. Of Birds and Factories. Milwaukee, Wis.: Peoples’ Books and Crafts; 1983. 104 p.
Notes: This first collection of poems by Sue Doro includes a glowing foreword written by Meridel Le Sueur. Some of the poems in this volume also made it into her second collection, Heart, Home & Hard Hats, but many appear here only.
- Durant, Edward W. “Lumbering and Steamboating on the St. Croix River”. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society. 1905; 10(2):???
- Glazer, Joe. Labor’s Troubadour. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press; 2001. 299 p. (Music in American Life. Notes: Labor educator Joe Glazer, who wrote such classic American labor songs as “I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night” and “The Mill Was Made of Marble”, kept labor songs front and center throughout his long career; in his autobiography here he tells the story of his life of using music for progressive causes and the people he met along the way. He also devotes two chapters to introducing us to some of the “New Voices” of the labor song movement, including a labor troubador of Wisconsin, Larry Penn of Milwaukee (see pages 255-260).
- Havens, Chris. “Lake Aces: Threading the Needle”. Photos by Justin Hayworth. Duluth [MN] NewsTribune, Sunday, November 17, 2002, front page (i.e., [1A]), 6A-7A ; 2002 Nov 17. front page (i.e., [1A]), 6A-7A . Notes: An overview look at the pilots who are licensed by the U.S. Coast Guard to navigate ocean-going vessels in and out of the ports of the Great Lakes, with the Port of Duluth-Superior used as an example.
- Hicks, Terry L. We Walk: A History of the Amalgamated Transit Union Local 519. La Crosse, Wis.: s.n.; 1994;92,  p. Notes: The story of the first eighty-five years of Amalgamated Transit Union Local 519, the local union established in 1909 by a strike for union recognition after employees had been locked out by the La Crosse City Railway Company, a public transit service. The development of the city’s early streetcar system into a modern motorized bus system is traced by the author.
- McLeod, Richard. “The Development of Superior, Wisconsin, as a Western Transportation Center”. Journal of the West. 1974 Jul; 13(3):17-27. Notes: Superior, Wisconsin, with its harbor at the western-most end of Lake Superior, was developed by mainly outside corporate interests into a major transportation hub in the second half of the 1800s. Land speculation began in 1853 with the formation of the Superior Land Company, to enter the competition to be the eastern rail terminal for the transcontinental railroad, but which lost out to Chicago. In the following years, development was sporadic, depending upon the corporate needs of some of the major nineteenth century industrialists (including Jay Cooke, James J. Hill and John D. Rockefeller). McLeod describes the various steps in the rivalry between Superior, Wisconsin, and Duluth, Minnesota, as the “Twin Ports” area developed into the major terminus for the railroads crossing the northern plains and their link with ocean-going ships coming up through the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. The author includes the addition of the individual railroads as they come into the area, as well as how major industrial activities of the area, such as coal and iron ore docks, steel mills, grain elevators and shipbuilding, contributed to the overall workings of Superior as a transportation hub.
- Nielsen, Marvin. Trains of the Twin Ports: Duluth-Superior in the 1950s Photo Archive. Frautschi, Dylan, editor. Hudson, Wis.: Iconografix; 1999. 126 p. Notes: Photographs of the trains of the railroads operating in the Twin Ports of Superior, Wisconsin and Duluth, Minnesota during the 1950s; the six railroads included are the Soo Line; the Northern Pacific; the Great Northern; the Chicago & North Western; the Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range; and the Milwaukee Road.
- Penn, Larry, composer. The Whiskey’s Gone [compact disc]. Milwaukee, Wis.: Cookie Man Music Co.; 1 compact disc; 4-3/4 inches; (CM-92). Notes: A truly wonderful CD by one of Wisconsin’s labor troubadors! Available from Cookie Man Music Co., 3955 South First Place, Milwaukee, WI 53207; telephone: 414/483-7306; URL: http: www.execpc.com/~cookeman/.
CONTENTS: “The Whiskey’s Gone”. — “Put Your Arms Around Me Babe”. — “Biffs Riff”. — “Old Time Aeroplanes”. — “Mabelo”. — “I’m a Little Cookie”. — “Maquiladoras”. — “Take It the Way It Comes”. — “On My Grandma’s Patchwork Quilt”. — “Why Don’t a Tow Truck Haul Toes”. –“Rondinellies Castle”. — “A Little Piece of the ‘Q’”. — “Gypsy Nocturne”. — “It’s Time To Go”.
- Rich, Stuart M. “Railroad Shops and Car Building in Fond du Lac”. Railroad History. 1976 Fall; (no.
135):5-33. Notes: Beginning with construction in 1851 of the first railroad to Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, this article traces how the Fond du Lac area (including North Fond du Lac, Wisconsin) developed into an important center for railroad car building and repair shops. Factors influencing the developmentof these shops included Fond du Lac being the second largest city in Wisconsin in 1870 (after Milwaukee), the ample timber supply in northern Wisconsin, the resultant experience of the local labor supply with sawmills and wood manufacturing, and the running through Fond du Lac from the early 1880s up until the mid-1960s of all three of Wisconsin’s major railroad lines–the Chicago and North Western, the Milwaukee Road, and the Wisconsin Central (later the Soo Line).
The Chicago and North Western repair shop operation in Fond du Lac was established in July 1851 by the Rock River Valley Union Railroad, a predecessor of the Chicago and North Western. By 1866 this repair shop had expanded into a major railway car building operation (known as the “Van Brunt works”) where many thousands of freight cars and passenger cars were built, including many for the Pullman Palace Car Company. Unfortunately, the Van Brunt works closed in July 1876, when the Chicago and North Western moved the car building shop to a new spot west of Chicago.
In the late 1890s both the Wisconsin Central and the Chicago and North Western shifted and expanded their repair shop operations somewhat north of Fond du Lac, thereby creating the city of North Fond du Lac, when the railroad workers moved to be close to their work. By the early 1900s both the Wisconsin Central and the Chicago and North Western also decided to use the Fond du Lac area as a division point (the location of a railroad division headquarters).
After World War II the railroad shops in North Fond du Lac had to make a lot of adjustments and the author carefully details those changes up to 1976 when this article was published: production of all-steel cars; less heavy car repair work; more light repair of cars, such as re-painting; more locomotive engine repair; repair of specialized vehicles, such as snow blowers for tracks; repair of brakes and wheels; cleaning of cars; making signs). But, to this day, both the Soo Line and the Chicago and North Western continue to operate repair shops in North Fond du Lac.
Stuart Rich says that “prior to 1919, there had been no record of any serious labor strike at North Fond du Lac” (p. 17). In early August 1919, however, the railroad shop workers were involved in a strike over wages, in conjunction with a national strike of railroad shop workers. The only other strike mentioned involving the North Fond du Lac shop workers occurred as part of an important national strike of railroad shop workers during the summer and early fall of 1922 over proposed pay cuts and the abolition of shop crafts rules, which had just been established during World War I under the federal administration of the railroads. United States. National Transportation Safety Board. Bureau of Accident Investigation. Marine Accident Report, SS Edmund Fitzgerald Sinking in Lake Superior, November 10, 1975 . Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Transportation Safety Board; 1978; PB-282 433. . 48 p. (Report – National Transportation Safety Board; NTSB-MAR-78-3). Notes: Here is the official report made by the Bureau of Accident Investigation of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) regarding the tragic sinking of the SS EDMUND FITZGERALD (a Great Lakes bulk cargo vessel) in eastern Lake Superior during a severe storm. The EDMUND FITZGERALD was carrying a cargo of taconite pellets from Superior, Wisconsin, to Detroit, Michigan, when it sank on November 10, 1975 at approximately 1915 (7:15 p.m.) Eastern Standard Time in position 46 degrees 59.9 minutes North, 85 degrees 06.6 minutes West (approximately seventeen miles from the entrance to Whitefish Bay, Michigan); the officers and crew, numbering in total twenty-nine, all perished. This NTSB Marine Accident Report was adopted by the National Transportation Safety Board on May 4, 1978 and is based in large part upon a U.S. Coast Guard Marine Board of Investigation which convened on November 18, 1975 in Cleveland, Ohio and which produced a report of well over twenty-four hundred pages.
The NTSB investigation board concluded that “the probable cause of this accident was the sudden massive flooding of the cargo hold due to the collapse of one or more hatch covers” but, that prior to the hatch cover collapse, “flooding into the cargo hold through non-weathertight hatch covers caused a reduction of freeboard and a list” and that the “hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces imposed on the hatch covers by heavy boarding seas at this reduced freeboard and with the list caused the hatch covers to collapse” (p. ). A dissenting opinion (p. 44-48) filed by one member of the four-person investigation board instead concluded that, due to the heavy seas, the EDMUND FITZGERALD suffered severe damage to the boat’s hull at approximately 1530 (3:30 p.m.) Eastern Standard Time while going over a shallow charted spot of only six-fathoms (thirty-six feet) in depth, which is north and slightly west of Caribou Island during the very heavy seas caused by the storm and eventually sank from the flooding in the cargo hold due to the damage sustained from this “shoaling.”
Based on its investigation of this accident, the NTSB made various recommendations to other entities for corrective actions to be taken, including nineteen recommendations to the U.S. Coast Guard, four to the American Bureau of Shipping, and two recommendations to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This NTSB report includes details of the recommendations made by the NTSB and also states that the recommendations to the U.S. Coast Guard will also be “published in the Federal Register” and, if “the Coast Guard does not accept some of these [NTSB] recommendations, the Coast Guard is required to set forth in detail the reasons for such refusal” (p. iii). Another useful feature of this report are the eight graphics, including drawings showing the debris field and how the pieces of the boat’s wreckage are lying on the bottom.
“Report Number: NTSB-MAR-78-3”–title page. Another edition: Also available on the Internet through the website of the United States Coast Guard at URL http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-cp/history/webshipwrecks edmundfitzgeraldntsbreport.html. This web edition carries the following note: “The text and format of this report have been edited to allow for better presentation on the internet. The facts of the case and the findings remain unchanged.” Be wary, however, of citing text from the web version of this report, due to it having been scanned using optical character recognition software, rather than being provided using the Portable Document Format (PDF)–when I compared the content of the paper version (as distributed in microfiche) with the scanned web version, I found a major scanning error in the web version in each section examined.