- Marathon Runner. Rothschild, Wis.: Employes [sic] of the Marathon Paper Mills Co. Vol. v. 7, no. 1-v. 20,
- 2, 1920-1931. Notes: A company-sponsored newsletter for their workforce; each issue is typically 16-20 pages in length. The contents generally contain portraits and biographies of various employees; news from within the paper mill plant and from the national paper industry; paper mill safety information, accident records of this plant, and exhortations to work safely; local community news of Rothschild, Schofield, and Wausau, Wisconsin; reviews of entertainers, sports events and other recreation of the area; general articles about health; messages from the company’s administration. [Description based on a bound volume containing v.10 (1923)-17 (1928), in possession of this bibliography’s compiler]
- Bartkowiak, Barbara. “Schneider, George John”. IN: Fink, Gary M., editor-in-chief. Biographical Dictionary
of American Labor. Rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press; 1984; pp. 504-505.
- Baxandall, Lee, editor. “Furs, Logs and Human Lives: The Great Oshkosh Woodworkers Strike of 1898.” .
Green Mountain Quarterly. 1976 May; (3):1-107. Notes: In Oshkosh, Wisconsin, on May 16, 1898 the workers in the door, sash and blind factories, represented by the Amalgamated Woodworkers Union (AWU), went out on strike primarily for union recognition and against the “starvation wages” paid in the Oshkosh mills, wages much lower than the woodworker pay scale nationally. During an altercation at a plant gate on June 23, one striker was killed, clubbed in the head by a scab. Women played an important role in supporting the striking workers. Although Oshkosh strike benefits of $3 a week were suspended in mid-June due to AWU woodworkers in Chicago beginning a strike also, the Oshkosh strike was maintained until August when the Oshkosh woodworkers returned to work with hardly any gain, due to harassing lawsuits filed by the mill owners against the key leaders of the strike. The famed defense lawyer Clarence Darrow, himself the son of a woodworker and having assisted AWU previously, represented the Oshkosh union leaders in a dramatic trial which successfully turned the mill owners’ claims of conspiracy on the part of the workers to combine to withhold their labor to that of the mill owners having conspired “against humanity and the natural wish for freedom and equality” (p. 31). For the complete text of Darrow’s eloquent summation, see p. 35-92. Also, around the time of the trial’s conclusion, state officials determined that two company practices of the mill owners were in violation of then current state law–a call for the abolition of those practices had been among the four original strike demands of the Oshkosh workers. Baxandall’s concluding chapter, “Aftermath–From Powerlessness to Worker Ownership” (p. 93-107), discusses the changing circumstances of employees at the Paine Lumber Company (one of the key mills involved in the 1898 strike) up to the time at which this work was published (1976).
4. Cigler, Paul J. Jr. “Two Rivers and the Populist Party in the 1890s”. Manitowoc County Historical Society
Occupational Monograph. 1993; 71:1-6. Notes: Based on the 1989 master’s thesis of the author, this work is available in PDF (portable document format) in the website of the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections in their “State of Wisconsin Collection” at the following URL: http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/WI/WI-idx?id=WI.Monograph71.
- Crane, Virginia Glenn. The Oshkosh Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898: A Wisconsin Community in Crisis.
[Oshkosh, Wis.]: [V. Crane]; 1998. 569 p. Notes: “The Oshkosh woodworkers’ strike of 1898 was a dramatic clash of labor and capital. It threw the city into the greatest crisis of its history. This is the story of that strike and of that community a century ago as it tried to come to grips with forces beyond its control.”–back cover.
At the end of the 1900s, the industry of Oshkosh was dominated by seven woodworking companies, which specialized in making doors, window sashes and window blinds. On May 16, 1898, the employees of these factories went out on strike primarily for recognition of their union, the Amalgamated Woodworkers Union (AWU), and against the “starvation wages” paid in the Oshkosh mills, wages much lower than the woodworker pay scale nationally. Four AWU locals were involved: Local 29 (the first woodworkers’ local in Oshkosh); Local 49; Local 57 (formed by splitting the German-speaking woodworkers off from Local 29); and, Local 63 (which represented woodworkers on the west side of Oshkosh, including those at the Paine Lumber Company). The strike lasted for fourteen dramatic weeks and was capped with an equally dramatic legal battle in which the union’s leading organizer, Thomas Kidd, was defended by famed defense lawyer, Clarence Darrow (himself the son of a woodworker). Women family members of the strikers played an important role in strike activities, especially in thwarting scabs and strikebreakers.
This book is distributed directly by the author; contact her either by telephone at 920/231-1810 or at the following address: Virginia Crane/1506 County Road I/Oshkosh, WI 54901.
- —. “The Very Pictures of Anarchy”: Women in the Oshkosh Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898 . Wisconsin
Magazine of History. 2001 Spring; 84(3):44-59. Notes: In this article taken from her book, The Oshkosh Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898: A Wisconsin Community in Crisis, the author focuses on the instrumental role women played in strike activities, especially in thwarting scabs and strikebreakers.
- Dunn, James Taylor. The St. Croix: Midwest Border River. 1st ed. ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston; 1965. 309 p. (Rivers of America).
- Durant, Edward W. “Lumbering and Steamboating on the St. Croix River”. Collections of the Minnesota
Historical Society. 1905; 10(2):???
- Engberg, George B. “Collective Bargaining in the Lumber Industry of the Upper Great Lakes States”.
Agricultural History. 1950 Oct; 24:205-211. Notes: The situation and strategies of collective bargaining in the lumber industry in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan is discussed for the period 1850 to 1940.
- —. “Lumber and Labor in the Lake States”. Minnesota History. 1959 Mar; 36:153-166. Notes: Discusses the lumberjack’s life in Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan.
- Fleming, Robben W. and Witte, Edwin E. Marathon Company and Seven Labor Unions: A Case Study.
Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association; 1950. 65 p. (Causes of Industrial Peace Under Collective Bargaining: Case Studies; no. 8).
- Glaab, Charles N. and Larsen, Lawrence H. Factories in the Valley: Neenah-Menasha, 1870-1915.
Madison, Wis.: State Historical Society of Wisconsin; 1969. 293 p. Notes: This volume explores the process of change in Neenah and Menasha, the ‘Twin Cities’ of the Fox River in Wisconsin, from the optimistic plans of the cities’ late nineteenth-century leaders that
the cities would become magnificent metropolitan centers and an exploration of the reasons why the two cities failed to reach those aspirations; this volume picks up the narrative of the history of these two cities where Alice E. Smith’s 1966 book, Millstone and Saw: The Origins of Neenah-Menasha, leaves off. Of particular interest in this study is its substantial Chapter 9, “The Workingman and His Work” (p. 220-257).
- —. “Neenah-Menasha in the 1870’s: The Development of Flour Milling and Papermaking”. Wisconsin
Magazine of History. 1968 Autumn; 52(1):19-34.
- Glover, Wilbur H. “Lumber Rafting on the Wisconsin River” [Part I]. Wisconsin Magazine of History. 1941
- —. “Lumber Rafting on the Wisconsin River” [Part II]. Wisconsin Magazine of History. 1942 Mar;
- Gunderson, Ralph O. “Reversals in Industrial Fortune: A Tale of the Fox Cities and Oshkosh”. Essays in Economic and Business History: The Journal of the Economic and Business Historical Society. 2000; 18:43-57. Notes: A comparative treatment of the relative industrial fortunes of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, and the four cities known collectively as the Fox Cities (Neenah, Menasha, Appleton, and Kaukauna, Wisconsin) and how the differences in their geography, as well as economic developments in the nineteenth century in these cities, determined their industrial specializations and relative economic situations in the twentieth century, especially regarding the lumber, flour, and paper-making industries.
- Holter, Darryl. “Labor Spies and Union-Busting in Wisconsin, 1890-1940”. Wisconsin Magazine of History.
1985 Summer; 68(4):-265. Notes: In 1925 Wisconsin union leaders, after twenty years of effort, were able to get significant restrictions placed in state law on the union-harassing activities of employers, especially regarding labor spies; other states later followed Wisconsin’s lead and enacted similar legislation. Besides exploring the legislative and organizational tactics used from 1890 to 1940 by the Wisconsin labor movement to combat labor spying, this fascinating article discusses how labor spies actually operated, how detective agencies began offering this specialized service, and how the 1925 law affected the operation of detective agencies doing this type of work in Wisconsin.
The author provides an in-depth example of each of the two situations in which labor spies were used; the strike discussed is that against the Allen-A Hosiery company in Kenosha, Wisconsin from 1928 to 1930 by members of Branch 6 of the American Federation of Full Fashioned Hosiery Workers, United Textile Workers of America and, for the second situation, he uses the Western Paper Makers Association (a manufacturers’ association led by David Clark Everest) and their activities to suppress unions among paper mill workers in central Wisconsin along the Fox, Wisconsin, Marinette, Eau Claire and Peshtigo Rivers. The article also examines the helpful role of congressional hearings held from 1936 to 1940 by the U.S. Senator from Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, Jr.
The State Historical Society of Wisconsin named this article as the winner of the annual William Best Hesseltine Award for the best article to be published in the Wisconsin Magazine of History during the year.
Also: Holter, Darryl O. Labor Spies and Union Busting in Wisconsin, 1890-1940. [Milwaukee? Wis.: D.O. Holter?, 1987?, c1985. 24 p. Article reprinted by permission from the Wisconsin Magazine of History, v. 68, no. 4 (Summer 1985).
- Hoppe, Daniel. “Never on Sunday: The Struggle of Papermakers in the Fox River Valley, 1895-1905”.
Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin’s Historical Review. 2006; 22(2):28-36.
- Industrial Workers of the World. Lumber Workers Industrial Union #120. “Lumber Workers of Michigan,
Wisconsin and Minnesota: A Review of Conditions in the Camps”. Chicago, Ill.: Lumber Workers
Industrial Union #120, I.W.W.; n.d. 4 p. Notes: “Organizing leaflet”–Miles’ Something in Common: an IWW Bibliography (1986), p. 445, Item 4307; identified as held in the collection of MiDW-A (Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.)
- —. “To the Lumber Workers of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota”. Chicago, Ill.: Lumber Workers
Industrial Union #120, I.W.W.; n.d. (1925?). 4 p. Notes: “Organizing leaflet for Great Lakes area lumberworkers that compares their wretched camps to the good ones in the Pacific Northwest, which were attained by the IWW by the 1917 lumber strikes”–p. 468, Miles’ Something in Common: an IWW Bibliography (1986), Item 4596; identified as held in the collection of MiDW-A (Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich.)
- Karges, Steven Burton. “David Clark Everest and the Marathon Paper Mills Company: A Study of a
Wisconsin Entrepreneur, 1909-1931″; 1968. Notes: Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1968. 346 p. Besides being the long-time president of the Marathon Paper Corporation (located in Rothschild, Wisconsin), David Clark Everest was also the secretary-treasurer of the Western Paper Manufacturers Association, an employer group made up principally of Wisconsin papermaking companies; according to the abstract provided to Dissertation Abstracts International, Karges considers Everest to have “made the transition from nonunion to union operations in Marathon’s plants without strike or strife.” For a fuller abstract, see Dissertation Abstracts International, June 1968, 29/12, p. 4426-A.
- Klueter, Howard R. and Lorence, James J. Woodlot and Ballot Box: Marathon County in the Twentieth
Century. Wausau, Wis.: Marathon County Historical Society; 1977. 414 p. Notes: In the first half of this volume, economic development in Marathon County (in the Wisconsin River Valley) is covered from the earliest development of lumbering there in the 1830s and up through the transformation of the city of Wausau into a general business and industrial center well into the 1960s (with both the organization of management and the workers being analyzed). The second half of the book focuses on how culture and ethnicity affected the political landscape of the area from the 1890s up to the early 1970s.
- Krejcarek, Jody. “The Knights of Labor and the Lumber Industry in Northeast Wisconsin, 1885-1887” . Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin’s Historical Review. 1996; 13(1):16-21, 24-29. Notes: The Knights of Labor had over 30,000 members in Wisconsin by the middle of the 1880s and this article looks at the activities and influences in the lumber industry of the Knights’ assemblies in Marinette, Oconto and Peshtigo from 1885 to 1887. In Marinette, many of the members of the Knights’ Assembly were also members of the Menominee River Laboring Men’s Protective and Benevolent Union; this union led a strike in late 1885 which resulted in the introduction of the ten-hour day at the mills of the entire area for the 1886 sawing season (a reduction from eleven-and-a-half hours). Various other improvements brought about as a result of the Knights’ assemblies in each of the three cities are also detailed, especially the political campaign efforts undertaken through a new party, the People’s Party, which was closely linked to the key organizer in Wisconsin for the Knights of Labor, Robert Schilling from Milwaukee.
- Lepore, Jill. “Objection: Clarence Darrow’s Unfinished Work”. The New Yorker. 2011 May 23;
87(14):40-42, 44-45. Notes: Upon the flimsy pretext of reviewing two newly-published biographies of Clarence Darrow, the article’s author recounts the development of the important Oshkosh woodworkers’ strike of 1898 and how Darrow came to defend the strike leaders in a court case brought against the Amalgamated Woodworkers Union, the union representing the striking workers.
The two new books _not_ really reviewed here are: Clarence Darrow: American Iconoclast by Andrew E. Kersten; Clarence Darrow: Attorney for the Damned by John A. Farrell.
25. Loduha, Bonnie C. A Bibliography of Wisconsin Forest History. Wausau, Wis.: Forest History Association
of Wisconsin; n.d. 58 p. Notes: The widest scope of forest history is covered in this bibliography, including many works providing information about the people who did the work involved. The bibliography is arranged into three broad sections (published materials; theses; unpublished records) with each section’s unnumbered entries arranged only by author (or title, where no author is given); although this volume does not contain an index, very brief annotations are provided for many of the entries.
- Ozanne, Robert W. The Labor Movement in Wisconsin: A History. Madison, Wis.: State Historical Society
of Wisconsin; 1984. 290 p. Notes: A general history of the development of the labor union movement in Wisconsin from the 1840s almost up to 1980; special note is made of a seventy-page section devoted to the unions of Wisconsin’s paper-making industry and also a section on “Blacks and the Labor Movement” (p. 161-165).
Reviewed: Dubofsky, Melvyn (reviewer). Wisconsin Magazine of History, v. 69, no. 1 (Autumn 1985), p. 69-70. Reviewed: Zieger, Robert H. (reviewer). American Historical Review, v. 90, no. 5 (December 1985), p. 1288-1289.
Another edition: Ozanne, Robert W. The Labor Movement in Wisconsin: A History. Madison, Wis.: Wisconsin Historical Society Press, 2011, c1984. 304 p. ISBN: 978-0-87020-495-1 (pbk.)
- Putz, George J. The Shawano Paper Mill, Centennial, 1894-1994. Shawano, Wis.: Little Rapids Corporation
(Route 3, county Hwy. MM, P.O. Box 437, Shawano, Wisconsin 54166-0437); 1994. 106 p.
- Rohe, Randall E. Ghosts of the Forest: Vanished Lumber Towns of Wisconsin. Wisconsin Rapids, Wis.:
Forest History Association of Wisconsin; 2002. 333 p. Notes:
Well-documented and profusely illustrated with black-and-white photographs, this is a social history of fourteen now-abandoned lumber company towns of the great lumbering era in the northern third of Wisconsin. In compiling the histories of these Wisconsin lumber ghost towns, the author utilized “lumber trade journals, period newspapers, local and county histories, personal interviews, and many other sources” (p. 2). Many historical photographs of the towns are included in the volume and are supplemented with contemporary photographs of the town locations with any still relics existing at the sites today.
See the index for half-a-dozen specific citations to the Modern Woodmen of America, “a fraternal order found in virtually all lumber towns” (p. 130), including a photo of the officers (with ceremonial axes and a banner) of the Modern Woodmen of American Camp 5801 at Knox Mills (p. 131).
CONTENTS: v. 1. Goodyear, McKenna, & Zeda (p. 5-36) [near Black River Falls, Wisconsin]. — Porter’s Mills (p. 37-60) [near Eau Claire, Wisconsin]. — Shanagolden (p. 61-87) [near Mellen, Wisconsin]. — Knox Mills (p. 112-137) [near Prentice, Wisconsin]. — Pestigo Harbor (p. 138-189) [near Pestigo]. — Heineman (p. 190-211) [near Merrill, Wisconsin]. — March Rapids (p. 212-241) [near Marshfield, Wisconsin]. — Parrish and Harrison (p. 242-267) [near Merrill, Wisconsin]. — Little Sturgeon (p. 268-296) [near Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin]. — Star Lake (p. 297-312) [near Eagle River, Wisconsin].
Appendix A (p. 327) contains a list of sixty-one additional Wisconsin lumber ghost towns for which the author is seeking any information. Appendix B (p. 328) provides directions of the fourteen ghost towns discussed in volume 1.
“Portions of several chapters previously appeared in the Annual Proceedings of the Forest History Association of Wisconsin and Voyageur: Historical Review of Brown County and Northeastern Wisconsin.”–“Introduction,” p. 1. “Copies of this book are available from the author at 1500 North University Drive, Waukesha, Wisconsin, 53188 or from Secretary, Forest History Association of Wisconsin, Post Office Box 1001, Marinette, Wisconsin, 54143.”–title page verso.
29. Schneider, John D. Out in the Darkness: The Story of the Great Oshkosh Woodworkers’ Strike of 1898 .
[Oshkosh, Wis.]: s.n.; . 86 p. Notes: A play “based on the work of Virginia Crane, Lee Baxandahl, and Inky Yungwirth”–cover; premiere performance on May 1-3, 1998 by the Oshkosh (Wisconsin) Community Players at the Grand Opera House in Oshkosh, Wisconsin; see WLHS Newsletter (Winter 1998-99) for excerpts of a review written by James I. Metz, Oshkosh historian and retired editorial page editor of the Oshkosh Northwestern; a copy of the play is available from the Winnefox Library System (see OCLC #42758729).
- Smith, Alice E. Millstone and Saw: The Origins of Neenah-Menasha. Madison, Wis.: State Historical
Society of Wisconsin; 1966. 208 p. Notes: This volume explores the process of change in the Neenah and Menasha, ‘Twin Cities’ of the Fox River in Wisconsin, from their initial specialization in flour milling to a switch over to paper making by the early years of the twentieth century and the dreams of the cities’ leaders to become major metropolitan centers. Of particular interest in this study is its substantial Chapter 5, “The Workingmen” (p. 83-101). Please note that the narrative of the history of these two cities is continued in the 1969 book, Factories in the Valley: Neenah-Menasha, 1870-1915, by Charles Glaab and Lawrence Larsen.
- Smith, Mowry Jr. and Clark, Giles. One Third Crew, One Third Boat, One Third Luck: The Menasha
Corporation (Menasha Wooden Ware Company) Story, 1849-1974 . Neenah, Wis.: Menasha Corp.; 1974. 177 p. Notes: The history of the Menasha Corporation is traced from a small company, The Pail Factory, established in 1849 in Menasha, Wisconsin to its growth into a nationally-known wood products firm with plant operations throughout the United States and with sales of $991,000,000 in the year 2000. The same family has operated the business since 1852 when the company was purchased by Elisha D. Smith, the great-grandfather of Mowry Smith, Jr., one of the two authors of this book. The Pail Factory in Menasha failed during the financial Panic of 1873 and the business was re-incorporated in 1875 as the Menasha Wooden Ware Company, producing a variety of wooden products, including pails, tubs, barrels, broom handles, clothespins, and washboards. Until 1900 the company used timber mostly from Wisconsin, but thereafter the company also used lumber from its holdings in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and later from Washington state, Oregon and Idaho. In 1915 the company’s Menasha plant was made up of over fifty buildings on sixty-five acres and required 27,000,000 feet of timber each year, with up to seventy-five percent of the lumber still coming from the company’s timber holdings in northern Wisconsin. By 1921 the Menasha Wooden Ware Company was supplying about sixty percent (4,500,000) of the wooden tub market in the country. In 1926 the Menasha Wooden Ware Company was re-formed into two companies, the Menasha Wooden Ware Company (as a personal holding company) and the Menasha Wooden Ware Corporation (for the manufacturing business). The company, throughout its history, adapted to changing circumstances by phasing out products as times changed and bringing in new products with market potential (corrugated containers, 1927; wood flour, 1929; handles for pots and pans, etc., 1929; toy furniture, 1929; juvenile furniture, 1934; paperboard, 1939; adult furniture, 1942; plywood, 1948; plastics, 1955; papermill machinery, 1969; plastic pallets, 1973). Finally, in 1962 the name of the Menasha Wooden Ware Corporation was shortened to the Menasha Corporation to reflect that the company had expanded beyond only wooden products. Due to a major fire on July 17, 1964 which destroyed the company’s longtime Menasha headquarters plant, the company chose to re-locate to nearby Neenah, Wisconsin, where more space was available.
The authors briefly note that the company’s first major labor confrontation was a labor strike in 1934 over the issue of whether seniority would be calculated separately for each department within the plant or on a plant-wide basis, as a leader of the company wished. Because Smith and Clark merely note that the strike was “settled on June 30, 1934, resulting in the installation of three American Federation of Labor unions” (p. 84) without mentioning even the names of the three unions involved or other pertinent details about the strike, one would have to conclude that there
must have been something more to this dispute than is explained here. One photograph from the 1934 strike is included.
- Voelker, Keith Emery. “The History of the International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill
Workers From 1906 to 1929: A Case Study of Industrial Unionism Before the Great Depression” ; 1969. Notes: Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1969. 401 leaves. Voelker has provided an organizational history here of the International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite, and Paper Mill Workers (I.B.P.S.P.M.W.) for the period from 1906 to 1929. At various times during this period, the I.B.P.S.P.M.W. had union locals in nine Wisconsin cities: Green Bay, Kaukauna, and Appleton (all on the Fox River); Oconto Falls (on the Oconto River); Marinette (on the Menominee River); Shawano (on the Wolf River); and, Rhinelander, Port Edwards, and Nekoosa (all on the Wisconsin River). Only brief mentions are made of these Wisconsin locals in the body of this dissertation (on p. 67-68, 125, 128, 173, 253-254, and 358), and a few are only mentioned in the bibliographical footnote provided for a document cited by the author (on p. 118, 122, 179, 183, 186, 232, 300-301, 306, 350, and 379).
- Walsh, Margaret. “The Manufacturing Frontier: Pioneer Industry in Antebellum Wisconsin, 1830-1860”;
- Notes: Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1969. 2 volumes (564 leaves). In an impressive work of original research, Walsh explores the development of manufacturing in Wisconsin from 1830, when settlement by northern European immigrants increased dramatically, to 1860 just prior to the U.S. Civil War. The author provides a statewide survey of the subject, as well as extensive discussion regarding the economies of six Wisconsin counties, selected as being representative of the different development patterns in Wisconsin during the period. The profiled counties are Jefferson, Grant, Winnebago, Eau Claire, Racine, and Milwaukee; the examples they represent are drawn from agriculture, lumbering, and mining, in addition to both rural and urban settings. With the state’s plentiful raw materials and good natural transportation routes helping to create a strong manufacturing base, the author concludes that it was not surprising that by 1860 Wisconsin’s industrialization had achieved significance not only for the Midwest, but also for the nation as a whole. The major primary sources used by the author included “the federal manuscript censuses for the state of Wisconsin, 1850 and 1860, schedule 5, products of industry, the Dun & Bradstreet handwritten commercial credit rating reports for Wisconsin, 1844-1865, and local newspapers … supplemented by manuscript business papers, agricultural and trade journals, city directories, reports of boards of trade and chambers of commerce and official state and federal government publications” (p. 538). For a fuller abstract, see Dissertation Abstracts International, 1970, 31/01, p. 348-A.
- —. The Manufacturing Frontier: Pioneer Industry in Antebellum Wisconsin, 1830-1860. Madison, Wis.:
State Historical Society of Wisconsin; 1972. 263 p. Notes: A revision of the author’s thesis (Ph.D.)–University of Wisconsin. Walsh explores the development of manufacturing in Wisconsin from 1830, when settlement by northern European immigrants increased dramatically, to 1860 just prior to the U.S. Civil War. The author provides a statewide survey of the subject, as well as extensive discussion regarding the economies of six Wisconsin counties, selected as being representative of the different development patterns in Wisconsin during the period. The profiled counties are Jefferson, Grant, Winnebago, Eau Claire, Racine, and Milwaukee; the examples they provide are drawn from agriculture, lumbering and mining, in addition to both rural and urban settings. With the state’s plentiful raw materials and good natural transportation routes helping to create a strong manufacturing base, the author concludes that it was not suprising that by 1860 Wisconsin’s industrialization had achieved significance not only for the Midwest, but also for the nation as a whole.
This book won the D.C. Everest Prize in Wisconsin Economic History.
- Wells, Robert W. Daylight in the Swamp! Madison, Wis.: Northword; 1984. 240 p.
Notes: “A boisterous account of lumberjacks, lynchings, barroom brawls, madams & timber thieves
in the wild northwoods of Wisconsin, Michigan & Minnesota”–front cover of paperback ed. Chapter VII, “Rivers of Pine,” is all about the huge rafts of pine logs being transported via rivers from northern Wisconsin where they had been harvested to the sawmill where they would be turned into lumber.
Reviewed: Sokolov, Raymond A. (reviewer). New York Times (March 19, 1978), section 7, p. 16. Reviewed: Kohlmeyer, Fred W. (reviewer). Wisconsin Magazine of History v. 62 (Autumn 1978), p. 62-64.
- Zieger, Robert H. Rebuilding the Pulp and Paper Workers Union, 1933-1941 . Knoxville, Tenn.: 1984.