1. Fink, Leon. “The Knights of Labor in Milwaukee”. IN: Holter, Darryl. Workers and Unions in Wisconsin: a Labor History Anthology. Madison, Wis.: State Historical Society of Wisconsin; 1999; pp. 26-33. Notes: Excerpted from Chapter Seven, “Bullets and Ballots: Mobilization and the Path to Municipal Socialism, Milwaukee, Wisconsin,” in his book, Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor (Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1985, c1983), p. 178-218.
  2. —. Workingmen’s Democracy: The Knights of Labor and American Politics. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press; 1983. 249 p. The Working Class in American History.
    Notes: See Chapter Seven, “Bullets and Ballots: Work Mobilization and the Path to Municipal Socialism, Milwaukee, Wisconsin” (p. 178-218), for a discussion of the Knights of Labor organization in Milwaukee.
  3. Garlock, Jonathan. Guide to the Local Assemblies of the Knights of Labor. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press; 1982. 682 p.

    Notes: A detailed guide to the local assemblies of this important nineteenth-century labor organization; coverage includes each state in the United States, each Canadian province and five other countries as a whole. In thirty-eight of Wisconsin’s seventy-two counties, the Knights had at least one assembly and some of the counties had multiple assemblies; see p. 542-549 for details about the Knights’ assemblies in Wisconsin. The following information is reported for each Local Assembly: the Local Assembly’s identification number; the community where located; the dates of activity; the occupation, race, sex and ethnicity of the members; and the population size in 1880 and 1890 of the community where located.

  1. Jensen, Don. “C. Fred Stemm: Labor’s Political Outsider”. IN: Burckel, Nicholas C. and John A. Neuenschwander, eds. Kenosha Retrospective: A Biographical Approach. Kenosha, Wis.: Kenosha County Bicentennial Commission; 1981; p. [62]-108.
    Notes: Labor leader C. Fred Stemm, a blacksmith with the Bain Wagon works forge, was a member of the Knights of Labor and active in Kenosha city politics from 1882 to through 1913, serving on the city council and also, for part of those years, as mayor of the city.
  2. Krejcarek, Jody. “The Knights of Labor and the Lumber Industry in Northeast Wisconsin, 1885-1887”. Voyageur: Northeast Wisconsin’s Historical Review. 1996; 13(1):16-21, 24-29.
    Notes: The Knights of Labor had over 30,000 members in Wisconsin by the middle of the 1880s and this article looks at the activities and influences in the lumber industry of the Knights’ assemblies in Marinette, Oconto and Peshtigo from 1885 to 1887. In Marinette, many of the members of the Knights’ Assembly were also members of the Menominee River Laboring Men’s Protective and Benevolent Union; this union led a strike in late 1885 which resulted in the introduction of the ten-hour day at the mills of the entire area for the 1886 sawing season (a reduction from eleven-and-a-half hours). Various other improvements brought about as a result of the Knights’ assemblies in each of the three cities are also detailed, especially the political campaign efforts undertaken through a new party, the People’s Party, which was closely linked to the key organizer in Wisconsin for the Knights of Labor, Robert Schilling from Milwaukee.
  3. Sofchalk, Donald G. “Weber, Frank Joseph”. IN: Fink, Gary M., editor-in-chief. Biographical Dictionary of American Labor. Rev. ed. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press; 1984; p. 577.