1. Pumroy, Eric L. and Rampelmann, Katja. Research Guide to the Turner Movement in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press; 1996. 358 p. (Bibliographies and Indexes in American History; no. 33).
    Notes: A German-American social institution found throughout the United States, the Turner societies combined athletics and physical education with cultural, civic, and political activities, being closely associated throughout most of the movement’s history with support for socialism and trade unionism. Begun in Germany in 1811, the Turner movement was brought to the United States during the mid-nineteenth century, when many Germans with socialist beliefs fled Germany after the unsuccessful democratic Revolution of 1848. Assimilation, however, led the movement’s national body to gradually switch over by the 1930s from their historic use of German in conducting their affairs to the widespread use of English and, finally, in 1948 to adopt for the governing body a new set of guiding principles emphasizing a general support for liberty and equality, rather than calling for implementation of a particular political program.

    This research guide is a union list describing where copies can be found of the publications and organizational records of the Turner movement in the United States. A twenty-page bibliography of the major books, articles, and academic theses about the Turner movement in the United States is included, as well as a thorough index enabling one to easily locate all the Wisconsin-related items contained throughout the guide.

    To identify the thirty-seven Wisconsin communities where a Turner society has been active, consult the “List of Turner Societies” found in Appendix I (p. 289-328) of this reference book; this useful list provides the exact names under which the society operated in each of the Wisconsin cities, the beginning and ending dates for each of those Wisconsin societies, and mentions any organizational changes of note. The four remaining active Turner societies in Wisconsin will be found in Madison, Milwaukee, Sheboygan, and Watertown.